Thinking about an education or career in art? Browse our guide below to help you decide which artistic specialty(ies) you are most interested in pursuing, or click here to see our Design Careers and Education Guide. Each specialty has a general description, education and career perspectives and helpful links for more information.
The airbrush is a hand-held tool that distributes liquid and powder material by air pressure. Liquids are sprayed from air-brushes to decorate cakes, paint murals, render technical illustrations, retouch photographs, and (a recent trend) put designs on finger nails. Glass may also be etched using the air-brush by spraying aluminum-oxide powder. The air-brush was the forerunner to the spray paint gun which now paints so many products of today (like your car). It was patented in 1882. The airbrush, properly used, can produce "photo-realistic" renderings that rival other forms of artistic medium.
Airbrushing courses are offered privately and at many high schools, art schools and departments, but degrees or certificates in the art form are not common. The Bureau of Labor Statistics includes some information regarding careers for airbrush artists in its write-up on Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators.
Animation is the illusion of movement. All films are created by joining together a sequence of still photographs with very small changes in-between. These photographic sequences appear to move because our eyes can't keep up with the speed of change. Animated films are created by filming drawings instead of photographs. Each single drawing is called a frame. When twenty four frames per second - each one slightly different - move in front of our eyes, it enables us to see the picture moving. This movement brings the drawings to life giving us the characters and the stories of the cartoon or animated series.
Careers for animation program graduates include 3D illustrators, digital artists, storyboard artists, game designers, video post-production artists, broadcast graphics designers, film animators. The Bureau of Labor Statistics includes some information regarding careers for "Multi-media artists and animators" in its write-up on Motion Picture Production and Distribution.
Antiquing is an art of broad spectrum. It involves a variety of methods used to produce an appearance of age and wear, but it applies to a multitude of surfaces and materials, including wood, glass, metal, plastic, paint, etc. Some methods involve using glazes which allow colors to blend into crevices to give an antique appearance. The antiquing process is very lengthy and usually involves numerous steps to obtain the proper finish.
In terms of education, the art form and skills are taught within some art programs, sometimes associated with jewelry, metals or furniture design programs. However, it is not commonly seen as a course or degree program unto itself.
The field of Art Administration bridges the balance between Art and Business, combining aspects of the visual arts related to management, marketing and finance. Educational programs often provide for students to choose a primary arts emphasis, while also taking courses in business & economics, art history, communications, information studies, communications, public relations, marketing, law, and fund raising. Professionals often work in arts management for museums, galleries, advocacy or professionals organizations, foundations, art management companies, and schools.
An excellent page from the University of North Texas' web site describes Art Criticism as "responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about specific works of art." Art Critics analyze, evaluate, interpret, and study of works of art, then translate them by articulating the intangible into the tangible. Ideally, the profession emphasizes development of an appreciation for and the use of art, including elements and principles of design, aesthetics, art terminology, art history, style of expressions, and the function of past and modern art concepts. Students can expect to focus on developing their writing skills to express interpretations of art through structured exercises that emphasize the three basic structural elements: form, content, and context.
Art Directors are found in almost every category of Art, taking conceptual ideas and putting them into a finished product. They often work closely with production to see projects through to completion, working to make every aspect of an artistic project the best that it can be. Depending on the type and scope of the project and the size of the company, this can involve any aspect of art creation, including the less "artistic" aspects such as organizing, scheduling, budgeting, advertising, and liaisoning with everyone else involved.
Students learn the tools of the Art Director: written and verbal language and the communication of ideas, which may include considerable overlap with fields such as Arts Management and Visual Communication. They learn how to present ideas and execute them in a professional manner.
The most effective art teachers are sociable and have the ability to motivate others. Like all teachers, they must be able to communicate their work to students, they must be knowledgeable in the arts, and they must be able to transfer that knowledge to students. Personal characteristics might include creativity, independence, patience, persistence, and caring for people.
Art Education programs are one of the most popular options in the visual arts, accounting for about 5 percent of all art majors and more than 65 percent of AA, BA, MA or doctorate candidates (according to statistics from the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, 2000-2001 HEADS Report, completed from a survey of 228 of its accredited member organizations). For graduates, some of the career possibilities beyond the classroom include positions as administrators, art critics, teacher supervisors, and art therapists. See the Bureau of Labor Statistics write-up on "Teachers — Preschool, Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary" for a detailed look at the field of teaching.
An art history program or concentration provides students with a knowledge of the contributions that artists and art make to our society. This, of course, is a huge undertaking given the spectacular history of art from prehistoric art to 20th century art and everything in-between. Education in the field involves the study of visual images and objects in various media, in particular, painting, drawing and sculpture, architecture, photography, video and the decorative arts.
Art History programs often focus on the historical, cultural, social, and political context of art and encourage the development of analytical and visual skills and an appreciation for differing viewpoints. Graduates have many opportunities, including, but not limited to, working as museum professionals, writers or critics, teaching art history, dealing in art, or using the education as a foundation for further study.
According to the American Art Therapy Association, "Art Therapy is a human service profession that utilizes art media, images, the creative art process and patient/client responses to the created products as reflections of an individual's development, abilities, personality, interests, concerns and conflicts. Art Therapy practice is based on knowledge of human developmental and psychological theories which are implemented in the full spectrum of models of assessment and treatment including educational, psychodynamic, cognitive, transpersonal and other therapeutic means of reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, developing social skills, managing behavior, solving problems, reducing anxiety, aiding reality orientation and increasing self-esteem.
Art Therapy is an effective treatment for the developmentally, medically, educationally, socially, or psychologically impaired; and is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, and forensic institutions. Populations of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds are served by art therapists in individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats."
A general degree in Art prepares students for careers in design, illustration, and fine arts, and it often requires studio art, art history, and electives outside of art. It strives to create a foundation for good communication, knowledge and social interaction. The Bureau of Labor Statistics offers an overview of art careers in its write-up on Artists and Related Workers.
Blacksmithing is the art of heating and shaping metal. The traditional craft has been an art form since primitive men began making tools and weapons, and today, forged iron commonly takes a variety of forms from artistic sculptures and jewelery to decorative household items such as rails, gates and furniture. Blacksmithing students learn the equipment, the forge, building and maintaining fire, basic metallurgy, history, and the types and qualities of coal, iron, and steel. Blacksmithing is primarily an art form today, as welding and machines have largely replaced the blacksmith's ability to create affordable, practical items.
Book artists use traditional forms to compliment the text and content of books. It is a relatively new art form, some examples of which include miniature books, pop-up books, puppet books, tunnel books, and motion books. Although many aspects of book artistry have been recognized for centuries as artwork, book art itself has only come to be recognized and studied as an art form unto itself in the last 30 years.
Students of Book Arts will learn about adhesives, inks and papers, taking courses in bookbinding, printing and publishing, papermaking, typography, calligraphy, history and sculptural work. Graduates will find employment opportunities with printing and publishing companies, book binderies, engraving companies, and paper companies.
Calligraphy is the art of handwriting and lettering which uses fonts, pens, inks, paper and other writing tools to create artistic text and is commonly used in announcements of special events, where a hand-crafted piece of text is desired. Today, the hand-craft is often overshadowed by computer-generated texts and fonts, but it is still commonly taught in schools and used by artists throughout the world, particularly in historic and cultural contexts. Calligraphers are often referred to as scribes, which also includes the art of illumination or page decoration, and its study is often included in curricula as a division of the Book Arts.
Cartooning is the support art of story telling, found in both animation and comic art. It used in light comical context of the funny papers to illustrated novels. It typically involves figures, characiture drawings, inkings and digital computer creation. It ranges from hand drawn comic strips to computer-generated cartoons found in feature films. Cartooning is fairly commonly-offered by art schools; there are also a handful of schools dedicated to cartooning and a great number of privately-offered cartooning courses. It is common for cartoonists to also study or graduate with degrees in animation, illustration, graphic design and drawing. A brief description of careers in cartooning is included in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' write-up on Artists and Related Workers.
Ceramics is one of the oldest mediums of art, predating civilized societies. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, ceramics is the "art or process of making useful or ornamental articles from clay by shaping and then firing them at high temperatures." In typical artistic mediums, clay is molded to any infinite number of shapes for an almost infinite number of industrial and domestic uses.
In terms of education, ceramics is one of the most popular artistic specialties, with almost 1,000 students in BFA and MFA programs at accredited art and design schools in the United States, according to the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. Students can expect some overlap with fields of painting, lithograph, and printing. Graduates can expect to find work as potters, decorators and model makers, in galleries and museums, in the tile and brick industry and in education.
Cinematography is defined as the art and process of making movies - however, it involves much more than simply recording an event with a video camera. Cinematography encompasses the artistic vision of filmaking, including considerations of lighting, photography, camera movement and angle, producing and final presentation. The cinematographer, cometimes referred to as the Director of Photography, works closely with the film director to determine the best way for each scene to be shot and lit.
The study of cinematography includes drawing, photography, lighting, theater, art direction, and filmmaking. Degrees and certificates do not appear to be particularly comon, but Film and Video related majors at the undergraduate and graduale level are and cinematography is a large subset of that field of study. Graduates can expect starting jobs such as camera operators, production assistants, gaffers, grips, and moving up to positions such as film directors and producers.
The field of commercial art is broad and varied, involving print advertising and promotional material, television, signs, packaging, web pages and almost any other form of visual communication for the purpose of attracting attention and interest in products, services or ideas. Because most businesses need to sell products or promote themselves in some way, commercial artists can be found in almost any workplace.
Students will find significant overlap with fields of graphic design, illustration, printing and publishing, computer graphics, exhibit design, visual communication and other art majors. Graduates can expect to find employment in advertising agencies, print shops, publications offices, television studios, and many other industries.
Crafts include, but are not limited to, art forms such as quilting, candlemaking, carving, beadwork, stitching, needlepoint and sewing, jewelry making, and woodworking. These art forms are not always associated with fine arts, but the detail of the work is often even more intricate. Art students will find classes and workshops in any number of crafts, and BFAs and MFAs in Crafts are available at some visual arts schools. The National Association of Schools of Art and Design reports more than 500 "Crafts" majors in accredited BFA and MFA programs in the US.
Drafting refers to the creation of technical drawings to be used as visual guidelines leading to an object's production, also including details such as dimensions, materials and process. Traditionally, this work has been done by hand on drawing boards using precision tools for exact measurements, but today, most drafting is done through computer-aided design (CAD). It is used in many fields of specialty, including (but not at all limited to) medicine, architecture, fashion, sports, and manufacturing.
Because drafting is between art and engineering, education requires math and science, in addition to artistic design skills, depending on the specialty within the field. However, the emphasis is more on the technical skills than the artistic, and drafting itself is not commonly found as a course of study at art schools, but it is common at technical schools which also frequently carry other art-related majors. Drafting professionals work closely with engineers, surveyors, architects, and growth within the industry is expected to expand at an average pace through 2010, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS offers an excellent write-up on Drafters, which anyone interested in the field should read (link below).
Drawing is a basic technique that very often is the first artistic skill to be developed by people in their lifetimes. As such, it is often considered to be the foundation of an artist's ability, and those who choose to further develop their talent may end up in any number of artistic or technical fields. The most common mediums can include pencil, charcoal, ink, etching and pastels.
One who majors in drawing is essentially a fine arts major, and can expect to work toward a deeper understanding of visual languages, as well as develop drawing skills that would be essential for their specialty. The field has significant overlap with many other artistic fields, including Illustration, Design, Drafting, Animation, Calligraphy, Cartooning, and Visual Communication. Drawing courses and workshops are common throughout the United States. Careers in drawing can include architecture, graphic design, commercial art, medical illustration, film animation and more.
Enameling is the art of fusing glass to metal. The oldest known enameled artifacts date back to the 13 century BC, and, today, 20th century artists use enameling to create murals and sculptures, as well as a myriad of practical and decorative items, such as jewelry, cookware and vases. The art of enameling is commonly taught in craft-oriented classes and workshops, and it is often offered as a course in art schools and programs - particularly as a sub-discipline of Glass Arts, Metal Arts or Jewelry. However, degrees and certificates in enameling itself are not common.
Textiles, fabrics, spinning, and weaving have been a part of our culture for ages. This ancient art dates back to thousands of years B.C., and although some of the equipment has changed, the process has remained the same. All fabrics are made through the process of knitting, weaving, netting or braiding. Textile manufacturing is the second largest money-making industry in the United States (second only to the aerospace industry).
A person looking for a career in textiles needs to be well versed in many areas from fiber manufacturing to fabric dyeing and finishing. Many colleges offer classes in textiles and weaving, and degrees are offered from the certificate level to the Masters; students can expect some overlap with majors such as Apparel Design, CAD, Crafts, Fashion, Folk Art, Product Design, and Visual Communication. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that overall employment of "textile, apparel, and furnishings workers" will decline through 2010, it also states that "because of the large size of this occupation... many thousands of job openings will arise each year from the need to replace persons who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons."
Opportunities for visual artists in Film and Video are many and varied, ranging from make-up and storyboard artists to 3D animation creators to directors and producers. Professionals in the field create everything from the shortest television commercial to the longest feature-length movie, and visual artists play a major role in a great many aspects their production. Given the size of the entertainment industry and the explosion of cable and satellite programming worldwide, jobs should be in high demand in all sectors of the industry for the foreseeable future, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
Educational programs in film and video are often based on a liberal arts foundation, with specializations in history, theory, design, production and many other possibilities. Depending on their emphasis, students majoring in the field can expect some significant overlap with other artistic fields such as 3D design, animation, art criticism, art direction, CAD, cinematography, media arts, multimedia, and visual communication. A few good career write-ups for the field are provided by BLS for Motion Picture Production and Distribution, Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors, and Actors, Producers, and Directors.
Fine Art is a broad career field representing many disciplines which could include specialization in almost any artistic specialty in both the visual and performing arts. Career opportunities for Fine Artists specializing in visual arts include gallery artists, commission portrait artist, publicly and privately commissioned sculptor or printmaker, fine jewelry making and ceramics designer, background painter for animated films, scenic artist for film or theater, muralist, or artisan/craftsperson. The opportunities are really as wide and varied as the interests of the fine artist.
Students can earn a Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) and can continue on to receive their Master of Fine Arts (MFA), which is considered the highest degree for studying the fine arts. Many students who earn their MFA go on to teach college level courses. Many students who enter a Fine Art program focus on Art History, for which a doctoral degree is also available to pursue; these students can further their education, seeking a career as an art critic, a gallery director, or a museum education program specialist.
Professionals in the field of jewelery may be buyers, sellers, appraisers, designers, mold and model makers, assemblers, engravers or polishers; often, jewelers specialize in a number of these areas for large manufacturing companies or small businesses. The work entails cutting, setting, and polishing stones and/or the repair and adjustment of jewelry, either of which requires precision work and attention to detail. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers), about 30 percent of all jewelers are self-employed, and they most often earn their education at trade schools, through correspondence courses, or on the job.
Learning the art of jewelry making deals with developing aesthetic values, technical skills and a commitment leading to personal expression in works of art. The process of jewelry-making requires fabrication, enameling, casting, designing and ultimately creating a wearable or decorative piece of art. New technologies in the field include computer-aided design (CAD) and the use of lasers for cutting and improving the quality of stones and intricate engraving or design work. To gain this kind of in-depth knowledge often requires a BFA in Metals/Jewelry, which includes general education, foundations, and a studio core, as well as art and design electives.
Layout and Production
Layout and Production has a broad range of educational and career choices. Included under layout and production is print production, pre-press, graphic design, and typesetting. Layout and production can be designing and producing magazines and newspapers, or it can also be video or television production. No matter what the specific area, the basic philosophy is to be able to design a layout including text, type, and images for any circumstance and to assist in its production.
Education in the field requires at least a Bachelor's Degree, usually in a specific field such as Animation, Graphic Design, Commercial Art, Illustration, Printing and Visual Communication. The actual courses can vary widely depending on the program; however, most programs focus on the development of problem-solving skills and the application of communications, math, science and technology.
Career options include web design and production, industry layout, layout artist. Because the field is so broad, career prospects are booming, and the pay is moderate to high.
Lettering refers to the art of symbols used in writing, covering Typography, Printing, Calligraphy, and Typeset. As a profession, lettering refers to the use of art and design principles and techniques to design quality signs, decals, banners, and much more. A knowledge of letter is required for nearly any type of graphic design work, and careers are often with graphic designers or businesses that create window splashes, custom signs, lighted signs, and do graphic other work. Jobs include logotypes, calligraphy and lettering for graphic designs projects, and even calligraphy work to be shown in gallery shows.
Because of the nature of the work, education in lettering is most often found as a subset of Graphic Design, Commercial Art and Illustration. When searching for a college that offers lettering, look for "Sign Lettering and Design." Most college programs for lettering begin with an associates degree and are sometimes followed with a bachelor's degree in a more specific area.
Plato said that a good education is the combination of social, emotional, physical, cognitive and spiritual development. A liberal arts education provides the foundation to define and pursue career goals as changes occur. While non-liberal arts universities focus on majors, liberal arts students focus on a broad base of subjects within their first two years, and then move into classes that help them develop specialized skills. A liberal arts curriculum is designed to facilitate a lifetime of continuous learning by providing the skills, tools, and encouragement needed to succeed. Students will sharpen their skills of inquiry, research, analysis, and communication. Most liberal arts colleges are four years and combine traditional, interdisciplinary, and experiential modes of learning with the use of advanced technology. Graduates develop a well-rounded, general background that opens them to a wide variety of jobs in the arts, depending on their interests and academic emphasis.
Lighting professionals use light, illumination and shadows as a means of artistic expression. The techniques are commonly used not only in photography and cinematography, but also in exhibit design, stage design, and interior design.
Lighting Education is both a science and an art, often referred to as "Lighting Technology." In this curriculum, students are provided with an overview of lamps (light bulbs), advanced lighting technologies, ballasts, luminaries (lighting fixtures), lighting controls, and much more. Students learn how to develop lighting designs, create mock installations, and how to use computer-based optical modeling. Career options for graduates include fixture designers and manufacturers, landscape lighting specialist, and fiber optic lighting specialist to name just a few. Gaffers, or lighting technicians, set up different kinds of lighting needed for filming.
Marbling is the "art of printing multi-colored swirled or stone-like patterns on paper or fabric" (Galen Berry). A common technique uses rakes and combs to make a pattern on a surface. Paper treated with alum is then carefully laid onto the surface. A few seconds later, the paper is removed and the pattern is transferred onto the paper. One of the main uses of marbling in the past, and even today, is that the paper has become an essential part of bookbinding, with the papers being placed on the inside covers of books. Besides bookbinding, marbled paper can be used for picture framing, note cards, collages, origami, and for covering just about anything.
There is formal education in that marbling skills are commonly taught at art schools as a course or a portion of course, degree- and certificate-granting specialties are rare. However, workshops and classes on marbling are common. A career and education in the printing and production field is one way to incorporate marbling and other printing techniques into a sellable job market. Otherwise, the market for marbling is very limited.
Media Arts are all about learning how the media operates in the world to shape the public mind. Media Arts can include working with media production experiences such as journalism, video production, and desktop publishing. In order to be successful in this field, one needs to have well-developed fundamental skills and be a creative person who can produce media messages.
A Bachelor's program in Media Arts provides a thorough background in liberal arts with an emphasis on media forms, such as television, radio, film/video and the Internet. Some of the course often covered in a Media Arts program are Photography, Stage and Sound Engineering, Graphic Design, Layout, and Typography, to name only a few. As a career choice, graduates should expect a very competitive field, and professionals must be motivated and interested in the communications industry to do well. Job titles could include TV producers, directors or technicians, public relations specialist, marketing directors, graphic designers, editorial cartoonists, and even college professors; because it is such a wide field of study, salaries also vary widely.
Medical illustrators create "accurate and aesthetically pleasing visual presentations for the healthcare industry" (Association of Medical Illustrators). Most professionals in this field have a love of art and science who became specially trained artists to communicate complex medical and scientific ideas in a meaningful and understandable manner.
Academic programs in medical illustration require studying of biomedical sciences, exploring new media techniques, mastering solid business practice, and applying all of this in novel ways. Today, index visuals are bringing together medical, scientific and natural science artists from all over the world. A degree in medical illustration is mandatory as the field is quite difficult to master. However, most programs are only two years and usually followed by further education - although there are only a handful of MFA program in the US that offer the specialty of Medical Illustration.
Graduates illustrate innovative surgical procedures for medical journals, design multimedia web sites, produce 3D animated films, and hand craft prosthetic appliances for patients. Medical schools, urban medical centers, large hospitals, and clinics employ many medical illustrators.
Media is a way of conveying information, and multimedia is the full range of methods in which such information is transferred. The most common are text, audio, video, and Internet, and professionals frequently combine media mediums in their work. A successful Internet and booming technology has caused the making and exchanging of information to be more profitable then ever before, and Multimedia professionals work to create compelling presentations and sales pieces, drive traffic to websites, put catalogs on CDs, or develop novelty business cards.
Multimedia is extremely popular in the area of education currently, and degrees range from an Associate's to a Master's, including courses in media literacy, technology, and communications, as well as the arts. There will likely be significant overlap with fields such as Advertising, Art Direction, CAD, Commercial Art, Desktop Publishing, Film/Video, Graphic Design, Illustration, Interactive Media, etc. A person who specializes in the field will learn about the different types of technology and equipment that are learn to listen to a customer's requirements, develop a solution, and explain it clearly. A person in this field can find jobs in advertising, computer art, web design, promotion, businesses that rent equipment, etc.
Museum Studies is a broad interdisciplinary field which explores the role of museums in shaping society's knowledge about art, culture, history, and the natural world. Careers opportunities in this field can be found in museums, cultural arts centers, historical sites and houses, science centers, environmental education centers, exhibit design firms, planetariums, zoos, and botanical gardens.
Museum Studies programs are often a collaboration between History, Biology and Art Departments, and advanced degrees can be found in the field from the certificate to the masters level. Students should expect to study art conservation, exhibition planning and design, educational programming, management and administration, preservation techniques, art history, and anthropology. The job outlook includes positions as archivists, curators, and museum technicians, which are expected to be keen as qualified applicants outnumber job openings. The job outlook for conservators may be more favorable, particularly for graduates of a conservation program. Employment is expected to increase about as fast as other occupations over the next ten years. The average salary for this field is $31,000 a year (Occupational Outlook Handbook).
Painting has an immense historical significance in the world of art to say the least. From Leanardo Di Vinci to Vincent Van Gogh some of the best known artists have been painters.
Painters: Render drawings, illustrations, and sketches of buildings, products, or models, working from sketches, blueprints, memory, or reference materials. Painters paint scenic backgrounds, murals, and other renderings for motion-picture and television sets, glass artworks, and exhibits. Painters develop paintings, drawings, diagrams, and models of medical or biological subjects for use in publications, exhibits, research, and teaching.
Painters study techniques, colors, textures, and materials used to maintain consistency in reconstruction or retouching procedures. Painters brush or spray decorative finish on completed background panels, exhibit accessories, or finished paintings and integrate and develop visual elements, such as line, mass, color, and perspective, to produce desired effects on a variety of materials.
Photography is an infant in the world of visual arts. It has only been in existence for a few hundred years. However, it has made a name for itself within the expanding world of the visual arts. Originally, photography was limited by the boundaries of visual reality. With time, professionals in the field have tested the rules of reality. This is becoming even more evident with the advent of computer technology. Now the skies are no limit.
Professional photographers benefit from formalized education at institutions that specialize in the art of rendering photography. The education of photographers is not bound to specialized training, as most colleges and universities offer courses in photography. From there, the photographer will find career opportunities in a variety of arenas, including everything from advertising and journalism, to scientific or free-lance professions. Workshops and seminars are also available for continuing education.
A major in photography provides studies in the aesthetic and practical areas of camera-generated imagery. Black & white and color photography are taught using traditional darkroom techniques, and using cutting edge technology with computer-generated and manipulated images and digital photography. Be sure to check out the Bureau of Labor Statistics excellent write-up on Photographers, which includes educational requirements, professional opportunities, and employment trends.
Printmaking is an art which involves the transferring of an image from one surface (such as an inked plate) to another (such as paper, fabric, metal or wood). The art finds its strength in its artistic value and its ability to be replicated, contributing greatly to the definition of world cultures. One will find alternative printmaking techniques as diverse as Indian, Asian, European, and American cultures. With each, a style has manifested itself over time, becoming a sort of artistic tradition for the people.
Education in printmaking can be found within most college and university fine arts departments. Students learn techniques in woodcarving, screen-printing, and lithography, among other forms of printmaking, together with related photographic, reproductive and digital printmaking techniques. Finally, there are methods of printmaking that can be done fairly easily, using simple household materials, which will provide the beginner with a good footing in the art of printmaking.
Careers in printmaking extend from advertising to publication illustration to free-lance art, to name just a few. Workshops, seminars and organizational memberships are also available for further education.
We learn from history. Due to this fact, it is important to properly record the events that symbolize the development of knowledge, culture, and civilization - and the artwork of any particular era is perhaps the most powerful benchmark: It not only provides a context of the times, but an emotional and cognitive element that provides a holistic view of a particular society.
Restoration is the repairing of damages concurred to the art material, the filling of gaps in the canvas support and paint layer, so as to maintain integrity and continuity. Art restoration refers to the restoring and conserving of paintings, murals, sculptures, textiles, manuscripts and so on. A restorer/conservator cleans, mends and protects artifacts from the past, working with a variety of materials, including paint and ceramics.
Education in the field ranges from the certificate and associate level to MFA's and doctorates in conservation, studio art, and/or art history; coursework often includes anthropology, chemistry, world cultures and foreign languages. Different academic programs will focus on different techniques, and students often learn to become specialists; for example, a person preserving paper products needs different knowledge and skills than a person preserving film. Career possibilities are found in museums, historical societies, public archives, curation, historical consulting, and fine art, furniture and or architectural restoration businesses.
Sculpture is an art form in three dimensions, involving crafted works of almost any material, including clay, glass, metal, plaster, stone, wood, pulp, or anything else that can be manipulated, molded or attached. Sculptures range from tiny models and collectibles to very larger-than-life monuments. In today's society, sculptors may work in foundries, galleries, museums, personal studios or movie studios, making anything from ornaments to exhibits. Sculptors have a basic understanding of the construction of objects and, therefore, they sometimes work professionally in architectural and industrial design.
Education in the field of sculpture can be found at most schools, nationally and globally, at the undergraduate and graduate levels. It is one of the most popular artistic specialties at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, according to statistics from the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. For the recreational sculptor, there are also workshops, seminars and continuing education courses offered in almost any community. Students should expect to learn skills in modeling, carving, forging and fabrication, moldmaking and casting, and nearly all methods of three-dimensional expression. This will prepare students for positions in teaching, fabrication and design of exhibitions, set design, motion picture industry, welding, and three-dimensional design.
The art of stained glass gained its acclaim during the early Romanesque period of art in Europe (11th or 12th century). The process involves pieces of colored glass which are cut out of a large sheet of bulk glass, then sometimes painted and fired. In the actual construction of the work, these pieces are fitted together using long flexible strings of lead - a process which can be dangerous if lead levels in the air, or in contact with the skin, are not properly regulated. Finally, when the piece has been completed, it is cemented to make it durable. Interest in the field has grown rapidly in the last 30 years, as new homes are often decorated with stained glass entryways, bathroom windows, lampshades, and window decorations.
Education in Stained Glass Design and/or Construction is found primarily through private workshops through craft centers, art fairs and museums, and through courses and classes offered in art schools and departments. However, there are also a few bachelors and masters degree programs offered, as well. It may also be found as a subset of Glass Art, which is a more commonly found art major. Careers in this field extend from the construction of windows for private and public buildings, to making lamps and jewelry, to fine art sculpture.
Originally published on ArtSchools.com
I'm April Bailey, a freelance writer and editor for hire who has been writing about various topics for many years. Most of my early print work was destroyed in a major house fire. Luckily, I was able to pull some copies from an old PC and have posted them here. Other items on this blog reflect my current articles and blog posts written for online publications and copied here so I never lose my work again!